Skip to content




One of the characteristics distinguishing males and females is the different sex hormones: the menstrual cycle is divided in different phases with different hormones which can fluctuate exercise performance. Ideally, trainers should consider cycle phases in order to plan workouts of the month, to reduce the tendency to frustration when performance declines, and to optimize recovery phases.


It results that when women are in ovulation, they can achieve their personal best in strength, compared to the follicular and luteal phases. The reason for this is because of increased estrogen, getting the body into an anabolic stage, and because it has a protective effect against muscle damage.

On the other hand, when women get into luteal phase, the body is not primed for high – intensity training. The body gets into a catabolic stage, where muscular repair is slower and energy body decreases.

The knowledge of menstrual phases could be useful for performance training planification. This is because the trainer could take care of the athlete and could understand what's happening with her body in the different phases of the cycle.